1. Cut back on meat and dairyProducing animal protein requires up to 17 times as much land as vegetable protein, up to 26 times as much water, and up to 7 times as much phosphate, a dwindling natural resource1. Animals are an environmentally inefficient way to feed ourselves.
2. Avoid out-of-season ingredientsOne study shows that an Austrian winter tomato has 12 times the emissions of a summer one2. The winter ones often have less taste than canned ones.
3. Avoid flown foodsFood miles are complex. However, regardless of how you crunch the data, flying food is an earth-killer. Air transport emissions are around 100 times those from shipping3. The usual suspects are fresh beans from Africa, asparagus from South America and fresh tropical fruits. Try to buy fresh seasonal produce grown in Europe or dried or canned equivalents instead.
1Quantification of the environmental impact of different dietary protein choices – The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
2Contrasted greenhouse gas emissions from local versus long-range tomato production
3The Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development